My Great Grandfather Walter Charles Wood was on the HMS Hogue during the engagement, he survived not only the sinking of the Hogue, but also the HMS Cressy too after he got aboard following the Hogue going down, i have his Medals, a PDF of his Service Record (1895 – 1919) and his “Diddy Box” too, i am trying to gain as much information as i can on his service, and especially … HMS Cressy was a Cressy-class armoured cruiser in the Royal Navy. A total of 837 men were rescued, but 1,397 men were lost. Crews were in short supply, leading the ships to be manned by reservists, many middle-aged, many of them pensioners, who had not previously served or exercised together as teams. Weddigen was appointed to command of the new submarine U-29 but his tenure was to be tragically short – U-29 was rammed by HMS Dreadnought in the Pentland Firth on 18 March 18th 1915.There were no survivors. Of these 34, a total of 13 were to be lost in the next four years. Six even-older old cruisers, the 10th Cruiser Squadron, were left patrolling off Aberdeen, on the North-East Scottish coast. Every member of the crew received the Iron Cross, Second Class. Launched in 1905, she was just under 3000 tons, 385 feet long and carried nine 4-in guns and smaller weapons. Hogue and Cressy were now creeping towards Aboukir’s survivors and lowering boats. At 6:20 AM on 22 September, HMS Aboukir was torpedoed by SM U-9 and sank in 35 minutes. Intended to form part of the battle fleet, they had been rendered obsolete by the advent of the almost equally-disastrous battle-cruiser concept. 22nd Sep 1914 HMS Aboukir HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue sunk HMS Aboukir was a, armoured cruiser of the Cressy-class.She has been launched in 1900 and was sunk by a torpedo along with HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue on the 22nd of September 1914 by U.9 in the North Sea. The reality cannot have been much different to this, horrible as it was. Antoine Vanner blogs weekly – and often more frequently – on naval and more general history and personalities in the period 1700-1918.Topics include naval warfare in the Age of Fighting Sail, the transition from Sail to Steam, international rivalries, dramatic happenings and little known events that have helped shape the world we live in. Hit on the starboard side, the cruiser heeled over, then began to right herself.  Some ten minutes later Weddigen fired his last torpedo from its bow tube. The impact on neutral opinion was equally powerful. A further step in the path leading to disaster was made when Christian did not make it clear that Drummond had the authority to order supporting destroyers to sea if the weather improved, as it indeed did later the following day. German reports that the sinkings were the work of a single submarine and the Times newspaper speculated that an entire German submarine-flotilla had been responsible, from which only the U-9 had returned safely. Zigzagging at 13 knots was made mandatory for all large warships in submarine waters. Cressy rolled to her starboard side, paused, then went bottom up with her starboard propeller out of the water. Cressy was stationary and her boats had been lowered. Aboukir sinking – by the famous British maritime painter Norman Wilkinson At 7:20, Cressy sighted a torpedo track, and the order was given "full speed ahead both", too late. Lord Charles Beresford never again referred to submarines as "playthings" or "toys". He took his vessel down to 50 ft for the night, stopping his batteries, and resting his crew. Hit by a torpedo fired by the German submarine U-21, she was to gain the unfortunate title of being the first British warship to be sunk in this way. The Pathfinder was a “Scout Cruiser”, a type which was to evolve in time into the Light Cruiser. The numerous “artists’ impressions” of the sinkings which were published in illustrated magazines did nothing to understate the horror involved. Britain’s armoured cruisers can be fairly described as the most unsuccessful and unfortunate type of warship ever employed by the Royal Navy. Weddingen managed to get his craft under again and as he did heard two explosions. About a half hour after Cressy went down a small Dutch steamer, the Flora, approached and managed to pluck 286 men from the water. This was perhaps their only positive attribute. (Note that the Netherlands was neutral throughout World War 1). The squadron was composed of four obsolete Cressy Class Armored Cruisers, the HMS Cressy, HMS, Aboukir, HMS Hogue, and HMS Euryalus. Once again - as with the 'live bait squadron' - Submarine U-9 had struck. Self-propelled torpedoes dramatically increased effectiveness of submarine warships. Then she too sunk, her crew’s plight all the worse since the boats she had sent off were already crowded with Aboukir’s and Hogue’s survivors. SINKING OF CRUISERS ABOUKIR, HOGUE, CRESSY OF DUTCH COAST by U.9 . HMS Cressy was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 7 March 1810 at Frindsbury. At dawn on September 22nd U-9 surfaced to find the storm over, the sea calm but for a slow swell. Two British trawlers arrived and joined in the rescue effort and eight British destroyers arrived from Harwich two hours later. Now hit on the port side the already stricken Cressy rolled over and remained on the surface, bottom up, for a further twenty minutes. HMS Aboukir was a Cressy-class armoured cruiser built for the Royal Navy around 1900. H.M.S.Cressy. Cheering erupted on U-9. In 1914, the best speed they could manage was 15 knots. Cressy was hit forward on the starboard side, and lurched high enough out of the water that a second torpedo passed under her stern. 837 men were rescued but 1459 men were killed in total U-9 targeted and sank the HMS Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy, killing over 1400 officers and men. Kapitaenleutnant Weddigen was by now back at sea and on the morning of October 15th – three weeks after his previous exploit – he found Hawke and her sister Endymion stationary and transferring mail. Her heavy-oil engines, of 1040 hp, gave her a surface speed of 13.5 knots. Reuterdahl - HMS Cressy Sinking.jpg 1,200 × 756; 108 KB HMS Cressy.jpg 890 × 666; 308 KB Steam launch of the HMS Cressy at the Port of Scheveningen in The Hague, 1914.jpg 3,858 × 2,708; 3.74 MB A contemporary German drawing of the U-9 on patrol. [6], In 1954 the British government sold the salvage rights to the ship and salvage is ongoing. Cressy, named after the 1346 Battle of Crécy, was laid down by Fairfield Shipbuilding at their shipyard in Govan, Scotland on 12 October 1898 and launched on 4 December 1899. Cressy was sunk on 22 September 1914 along with two of her sisterships, by the German U-boat U-9. The Secretary of the Admiralty on September 25 authorized the following statement with reference to the sinking of HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue in the North Sea on September 22:- The facts of this affair cannot be better conveyed to the public than by the attached reports of the Senior Officers who have survived and Landed back in England. She had an active career, also sinking HMS Hawke and serving in the Baltic, being the only one of her class to survive the war. HMS Hogue – the 6″ weapons in the lower casemates were unworkable in rough seas. Her commander, Otto Weddigen, was not so fortunate. September 22nd 2014 saw the hundredth anniversary of the first massive loss by the Royal Navy in the First World War. Her greatest weakness was her heavy-oil engine, which produced a very visible exhaust plume. HMS Cressy was launched 4 December 1899, and along with her sister ships HMS Aboukir and HMS Hogue, was torpedoed by a single submarine, the U9, off the Dutch coast early on 22 September 1914. 2 × BL 9.2-inch (233.7 mm) Mk X guns Henry Charles Wickenden, was lost with the HMS Cressy on 22 September 1914. She was now stationary and Weddigen fired both bow tubes at her. Note the heavy exhaust. The force pa… She was commissioned by Captain Henry Tudor for service on the China Station on 28 May 1901, but her departure was delayed for several months when her steering gear broke down shortly after leaving the base and she had to return. And because they never sighted periscopes, they no longer zigzagged. Undetected, U-9 came within 600 yards of Aboukir’s port bow before firing a torpedo. The sinking of the Battleship Cressy, together with the Battleships Aboukir and Hogue on the 22 September 1914 was a disaster in itself, but was made all the more significant because it ushered in the dawn of a terrible new weapon, the submarine. The vulnerability of these cruisers was recognised by many senior officers, not only because of their obsolescence but because of their manning. The most devastating criticism was of Rear Admiral Campbell, who had been Christian’s superior, and for whom the latter had been acting – at the inquiry he made the remarkable statement that he did not know what the purpose of his command was. But that’s another story. Assuming that he had hit a mine – even after the loss of the Pathfinder the submarine threat was still underestimated – Captain Drummond ordered Cressy and Hogue to come closer so that Aboukir’s wounded could be transferred.  Even had a mine indeed been responsible the order would have been an unwise one, but with the U-9’s presence still unsuspected it was to prove fatal. Hit amidships on the port side, the engine and boiler rooms were flooded and the ship listed to port. At 6:20 AM on 22 September, HMS Aboukir was torpedoed by SM U-9 and sank in 35 minutes. Length: 472 feet At 7:20, Cressy sighted a torpedo track, and the order was given "full speed ahead both", too late. They were large – and expensive – ships and they needed large crews. Though destroyers and light cruisers would have been more suited to the task it was believed that destroyers would be unable to maintain the patrol in bad weather and insufficient modern light cruisers were available. The other main actor in the drama was also moving towards the Broad Fourteens. The bulk of the blame was directed at the Admiralty for persisting with a patrol that was dangerous and of limited value against the advice of senior sea-going officers. Chatham-based cruisers HMS Cressy, HMS Aboukir and HMS Hogue were sent to the bottom of the sea about 20 miles off Holland in September 1914, leaving 1,459 sailors dead. They were torpedoed by a single German U-boat and the day could be called the beginning of an era, an important wake-up call, and a major lesson to both Germany and Britain on … She remained in this position for 20 minutes, then sank at 7:55. She could make 25 knots top speed but her limited coal capacity was the class’s Achilles heel. HMS Cressy was a Cressy -class armoured cruiser in the Royal Navy. Fifteen-year-old Wenham Wykeman-Musgrave was a midshipman on the Aboukir when it was rocked by an explosion and began to sink. At 6:55, Hogue was struck by two torpedoes. The U-9 was very primitive by later standards, her surface displacement 505 tons, her length 188 ft. each displacing 12,000 tons and mounting two 9.2” and 12 6” guns. They continued to patrol as the weather improved until sunrise on 22 September.[4]. At the outbreak of war in 1914 all major navies had small numbers of submarines. On 20 September Rear-Admiral Arthur Christian returned to port with HMS Euryalus to coal, reducing the patrol to three ships, Cressy, Aboukir and Hogue. The cruisers were part of the Southern Force (Rear-Admiral Arthur Christian) composed of the flagship Euryalus, the light cruiser Amethyst and the 7th Cruiser Squadron (7th CS, also known as Cruiser Squadron C, Rear-Admiral H. H. Campbell, nicknamed the live-bait squadron), comprising the Cressy-class armoured cruisers HMS Bacchante, Aboukir, Hogue, Cressy and Euryalus, the 1st and 3rd Destroyer flotillas, ten submarines of the 8th Oversea Flotilla and the attached Active-class scout cruiser, Fearless. Smoke was seen on the horizon and the U-9’s engines were immediately shut down to get rid of their exhaust plume. On 15 October the protected cruiser HMS Hawke was lost to the same submarine, U-9, off Aberdeen, when she was steaming at 13 knots and not zigzagging. On September 21st he identified his position as some 20 miles off the Dutch coast at Scheveningen, the port of The Hague. Each ship had over 700 officers and men from the Royal Navy reserves, many being middle aged family men from local towns and villages. At 10:30 a single torpedo from the German submarine hit HMS Hawke. In 1907 she was transferred to the North America and West Indies Station before being placed in reserve in 1909. HMS Cressy when new – still in Victorian livery. From that point on, the Royal Navy took submarine attacks on the fleet much more seriously and radically improved its anti-submarine practices. Hogue and Cressy approached to pick up survivors, throwing anything that would float into the water for the survivors to cling to. After weeks of daily patrols, their old engines could no longer even maintain 15 knots and speed dropped to 12 knots, and often as low as 9. All three cruisers sank within ninety minutes, with the total loss of 1,459 lives. As Hawke got under way again – without zigzagging – Weddigen sank her with a single torpedo. He was the son of Mr and Mrs H. Wickenden, of 9 Dolphin Lane, Dover, and the husband of Mary Ann, nee Colyer, whom he … Less than a month later, U-9 sank the even more elderly cruiser, HMS Hawke. Among these was HMS Hawke, a protected cruiser of 7700 tons which dated from 1893 and was the survivor of a collision with the liner RMS Olympic in 1911. Attempts to counter Aboukir’s list by counter flooding proved unsuccessful and when it was obvious that she was going to roll over “abandon ship” was ordered. At 6:55, Hogue was struck by two torpedoes. Weddigen attempted to navigate by soundings – a doubtful technique even in the best of circumstances. Upon completion she was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet and spent most of her career there. With Christian unable to transfer his flag, command devolved to Captain John Drummond of the Aboukir. The magazines of the time left little to the imagination. She eventually l… She eventually left home waters in early October 1901, arriving at Colombo 7 November,[3] Singapore and Hong Kong in November. This disaster in question was to cost 1459 men their lives and destroy three ships. Tuesday, 22 September 1914 sinking of the 3 cruisers HMS Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy off the Dutch coast by U.9 being sunk one by one as each ship went in turn to the assistance of their sisters. In all 1,459 men were lost off the Dutch Coast, on the three ships HMS Aboukir, HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue. Also 2X18” torpedo tubes – the Hogue is seen dropping boats to pick up survivors,  A contemporary illustration of the Aboukir’s end Cressy's boats had been sent to pick up survivors from the other two ships, and returned already loaded with men. Aboukir and Hogue, on the morning of the 22nd of September, while on patrol duty. The 34 vessels of this type that were in service at the outbreak of war had entered service between 1902 and 1908 – they were not old ships. A quick appraisal led Weddigen to order diving but he continues to observe through his periscope. Three vessels were approaching – the Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue – and Weddingen steered on his electric motors towards the central vessel, Aboukir. Click here to return to Steam, Steel and Strife, Disaster 1914: The loss of HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue. 12 × BL 6-inch (152.4 mm) Mk VII guns. The Hogue’s end was almost identical to her sister’s and the “abandon ship” order meant leaping into the water as her boats were already busy with saving Aboukir’s survivors. On the day of her destruction her bunkers were so depleted that she was restricted to 5 knots, making her an easy target for the U-Boat. Crew at commissioning: 760. Weddigen still had three torpedoes left, two aft, one forward. As this was still running Weddigen took his craft down to 50 feet, then heard “a dull thud, followed by a shrill-toned crash”. The first indication of the submarine’s potential came on September 5th 1914, when the British cruiser HMS Pathfinder was sunk in the North Sea off the Scottish coast. Only then did the Admiralty finally remove the old armoured cruisers from patrol duties. On September 20th 1914 Cruiser Force C’s patrol consisted of HMS Euryalus, HMS Aboukir, HMS Hogue and HMS Cressy, with a fifth vessel, HMS Bacchante in remaining in port. The lessons of the Pathfinder, Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue sinkings still did not appear to have been learned at the Admiralty. The Bacchante class had been placed in the Reserve Fleet. Fevered development during the First World War was to change such views but in September 1914 many commanders who had grown up in purely surface navies still held to such opinions. Details of the Cressy class, of which Cruiser Force C was composed, were as follow: Displacement: 12,000 tons Sketch of the Cressy sinking, by Henry Reuterdahl. The survivors were almost all naked, and so exhausted they had to be hauled aboard with tackle. Upon completion she was assigned to the China Station. The single torpedo was to prove enough to destroy Aboukir. Shortly after the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Cressy and her sister ships Bacchante, Euryalus, Hogue and Aboukir were assigned to the 7th Cruiser Squadron, patrolling the Broad Fourteens of the North Sea, in support of a force of destroyers and submarines based at Harwich which blocked the eastern end of the English Channel from German warships attempting to attack the supply route between England and France. Rear Admiral Christian, in Euryalus, was in temporary command of the force. Engines: Triple Expansion, 21,000 hp HMS Cressy was a Cressy-class armoured cruiser built for the Royal Navy around 1900. ABOUKIR (survivor list included) ABBS, Tom W R, Sick Berth Attendant, M 4398 (Ch) ABRATHAT, William, Private, RMLI (RFR B 1999), 12609 (Ch) The logic of maintaining a patrol in the area was unassailable as a fast German raiding force of destroyers could wreak havoc on British maritime supply lines between the English Coast and Northern France should they enter the Channel. A second Dutch ship, the Titan, rescued 147 more. Limited range and armament, low speed and, above all, short underwater endurance led many to believe that the offensive threat they posed, especially to warships, would not be great. The impact on British public-consciousness was massive – comparable to the loss HMS Courageous and HMS Royal Oak in 1939 – and all the more so since it was recognised not only as avoidable, but the result of poor professional decision-making. Only one boat got away, the others either wrecked by the explosion or impossible to launch. 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